Description

Simple

An ingredient added to dental products to remove bacteria.

Clinical

An ingredient added to dental products to remove bacteria.

Overview

Xylitol is a naturally occurring five-carbon sugar alcohol found in most plant material, including many fruits and vegetables. Xylitol-rich plant materials include birch and beechwood [1]. It is widely used as a sugar substitute and in "sugar-free" food products. The effects of xylitol on dental caries have been widely studied, and xylitol is added to some chewing gums and other oral care products to prevent tooth decay and dry mouth. Xylitol is a non-fermentable sugar alcohol by most plaque bacteria, indicating that it cannot be fermented into cariogenic acid end-products [4]. It works by inhibiting the growth of the microorganisms present in plaque and saliva after it accummulates intracellularly into the microorganism [4]. The recommended dose of xylitol for dental caries prevention is 6–10 g/day, and most adult... Read more

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated for use as a sugar substitute, and oral hygiene active ingredient.

Pharmacodynamic

There has been evidence of xylitol in dental hygiene in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries [ Read more

Mechanism of action

Xylitol is initially taken up by the microorganism and accumulates intracellularly. Accumulated xylitol is transported into an energy-consuming cycle, or the inducible fructose transport system. It is converted to non-metabolizable, toxic xylitol-5-phosphate via phosphoenolpyruvate: a constitutive f... Read more

Absorption

Xylitol is absorbed in the small intestine via passive diffusion with a slow absorption rate [ Read more

Protein binding

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Volume of distribution

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Clearance

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Half life

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Route of elimination

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Toxicity

Oral LD50 is 16500 mg/kg in rat [MSDS]. At high dosages, xylitol can cause diarrhea in children at 45 g/d and 100 g/d in adults [ Read more

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

Information currently not available.

Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.

Interactions

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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
6 References
  1. 1 . Nayak PA, Nayak UA, Khandelwal V: The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora. Clin Cosmet Investig Dent. 2014 Nov 10;6:89-94. doi: 10.2147/CCIDE.S55761. eCollection 2014.PubMed: 25422590
  2. 2 . Soderling E, Hirvonen A, Karjalainen S, Fontana M, Catt D, Seppa L: The effect of xylitol on the composition of the oral flora: a pilot study. Eur J Dent. 2011 Jan;5(1):24-31.PubMed: 21311610
  3. 3 . Trahan L, Bourgeau G, Breton R: Emergence of multiple xylitol-resistant (fructose PTS-) mutants from human isolates of mutans streptococci during growth on dietary sugars in the presence of xylitol. J Dent Res. 1996 Nov;75(11):1892-900. doi: 10.1177/00220345960750111201.PubMed: 9003237
  4. 4 . Trahan L: Xylitol: a review of its action on mutans streptococci and dental plaque--its clinical significance. Int Dent J. 1995 Feb;45(1 Suppl 1):77-92.PubMed: 7607748
  5. 5 . Miake Y, Saeki Y, Takahashi M, Yanagisawa T: Remineralization effects of xylitol on demineralized enamel. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 2003;52(5):471-6.PubMed: 14700079
  6. 6 . Amo K, Arai H, Uebanso T, Fukaya M, Koganei M, Sasaki H, Yamamoto H, Taketani Y, Takeda E: Effects of xylitol on metabolic parameters and visceral fat accumulation. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2011 Jul;49(1):1-7. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.10-111. Epub 2011 Jun 17.PubMed: 21765599