Description

Simple

A medication used to empty the bowel before a colonoscopy or as a magnesium supplement.

Clinical

A laxative used in bowel preparation for colonoscopy or as a magnesium supplement.

Overview

Magnesium citrate is a low volume and osmotic cathartic agent. The cathartic action works primarily through the high osmolarity of the solution which draws large amounts of fluid into space where is used.[5] Magnesium citrate is considered by the FDA as an approved inactive ingredient for approved drug products under the specifications of oral administration of a maximum concentration of 237 mg.[7] It is also considered as an active ingredient in over-the-counter products.[6]

Pharmacology

Indication

Magnesium citrate has been used in bowel preparations prior to a colonoscopy as a cathartic agent.[5]

It is also used in over-the-counter products to relieve occasional constipa... Read more

Pharmacodynamic

The onset of action can be as early as 30 minutes after administration with a mean onset time of approximately 2 hours and a maximum action of 4 hours. The effect of magnesium citrate is highly dependent on the individual's hydration status.[ Read more

Mechanism of action

It mainly works through its property of high osmolality which will draw large amounts of fluid into the colonic lumen. There is also a possible stimulation of fluid excretion by cholecystokinin release and activation of muscle peristalsis.[ Read more

Absorption

Mean plasma concentration of magnesium after administration of oral doses of magnesium citrate are reported to be of around 0.7 mmol/L and the concentration in saliva rested in 0.28 mmol/L. In reports, it has also been proven that the absorption and bioavailability of magnesium are greater when admi... Read more

Protein binding

Magnesium, once ionized, is highly bound to plasma proteins and it can represent even 90% of the magnesium found in blood plasma.[ Read more

Volume of distribution

Information currently not available.

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

The study of the half-life of magnesium citrate is very difficult due to the half-life of the available isotopes for magnesium.[ Read more

Route of elimination

After oral administration of magnesium citrate, there is a 40% increase in urine excretion of magnesium.[ Read more

Toxicity

The occurrence of overdose with magnesium citrate is very unlikely but some of the signs of the presence of overdose are diarrhea or severe stomach pain.[8]

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

Information currently not available.

Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.

Interactions

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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5
The serum concentration of Magnesium citrate can be increased when it is combined with 1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5.
1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2
The serum concentration of Magnesium citrate can be increased when it is combined with 1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2.
3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl Diphosphate
Magnesium citrate can cause a decrease in the absorption of 3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl Diphosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Acetazolamide
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Magnesium citrate.
Aclidinium
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium citrate can be decreased when used in combination with Aclidinium.
Agmatine
The risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Agmatine is combined with Magnesium citrate.
Alcuronium
The therapeutic efficacy of Alcuronium can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium citrate.
Alendronic acid
Magnesium citrate can cause a decrease in the absorption of Alendronic acid resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Alfacalcidol
The serum concentration of Magnesium citrate can be increased when it is combined with Alfacalcidol.
Alfentanil
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium citrate can be decreased when used in combination with Alfentanil.
Alloin
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Magnesium citrate is combined with Alloin.
Almasilate
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium citrate can be decreased when used in combination with Almasilate.
Aloglutamol
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium citrate can be decreased when used in combination with Aloglutamol.
Alphacetylmethadol
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium citrate can be decreased when used in combination with Alphacetylmethadol.
Alphaprodine
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium citrate can be decreased when used in combination with Alphaprodine.
Aluminium
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium citrate can be decreased when used in combination with Aluminium.
Aluminium acetoacetate
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium citrate can be decreased when used in combination with Aluminium acetoacetate.
Aluminium glycinate
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium citrate can be decreased when used in combination with Aluminium glycinate.
Aluminium phosphate
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium citrate can be decreased when used in combination with Aluminium phosphate.
Aluminum hydroxide
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium citrate can be decreased when used in combination with Aluminum hydroxide.
10 References
  1. 1 . Walker AF, Marakis G, Christie S, Byng M: Mg citrate found more bioavailable than other Mg preparations in a randomised, double-blind study. Magnes Res. 2003 Sep;16(3):183-91.PubMed: 14596323
  2. 2 . Rylander R, Megevand Y, Lasserre B, Amstutz W, Granbom S: Moderate alcohol consumption and urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2001;61(5):401-5.PubMed: 11569488
  3. 3 . Nielsen SP: Free and protein-bound magnesium in normal human plasma determined by ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1969 May;23(3):219-25.PubMed: 5383308
  4. 4 . Jahnen-Dechent W, Ketteler M: Magnesium basics. Clin Kidney J. 2012 Feb;5(Suppl 1):i3-i14. doi: 10.1093/ndtplus/sfr163.PubMed: 26069819
  5. 5 . Kim D. and Pickhardt P. (2010). CT Colonography. Elsevier.
  6. 6 . Health Canada Link
  7. 7 . FDA Inactive ingredient search Link
  8. 8 . Dailymed Link
  9. 9 . Supplements manufacturer Link
  10. 10 . Magnesium citrate File