Description

Simple

An ingredient used to provide nutrition and hydration to some patients in hospitals.

Clinical

An ionic compound used for electrolyte replenishment and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) therapy.

Overview

Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate is a hydrated form of anhydrous magnesium acetate salt with the chemical formula of Mg(CH3COO)2 • 4H2O. As a salt form of magnesium, magnesium acetate is one of the bioavailable forms of magnesium and forms a very water soluble compound. Magnesium is an essential element and second most abundant cation in the body that plays a key role in maintaining normal cellular function such as production of ATP and efficient enzyme activity. Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be used as an electrolyte supplementation or a reagent in molecular biology experiments.

Pharmacology

Indication

Used as magnesium salf-containing laxatives to prevent constipation. It can bring synergistic effect to restore normal bowel function when using in combination with aluminum salts that induce bowel retention [ Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Magnesium is an essential cofactor for many enzymatic reactions such as protein synthesis and ATP production. It also participates in adenylyl cyclase pathway and tyrosine kinase signalling pathways. Magnesium may also play a role in regulating glucose metabolism. It serves as an essential cation fo... Read more

Mechanism of action

Magnesium ions electrostatically stabilize the adenylyl cyclase complex and enhance its catalytic actions and production of cAMP. They also regulate the level of phosphorylation in various pathways by formation of transition state of phosphoryl transfer reaction by protein kinases and stabilize ATP... Read more

Absorption

Intestinal absorption is achieved mainly through passive diffusion.

Protein binding

Protein binding of magnesium ions is about 30%

Volume of distribution

Magnesium ions display approximate volume of distribution of 0.2 to 0.4 L/kg

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

Elimination half-life has been reported to be 27.7 hours following an overdose of 400mEq magnesium in an adult.

Route of elimination

Mainly renal exctretion, where up to 97% of magnesium may be excreted renally during hypermagnesemia.

Toxicity

Predicted oral LD50 value is >2000mg/kg. In case of mild to moderate toxicity, it may cause irritation in case of skin or eye contact,and nausea or vomiting from ingestion and inhalation. In overdose, magnesium impairs neuromuscular transmission, manifested as weakness and hyporeflexia. Early manife... Read more

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

Information currently not available.

Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.

Interactions

Type in a drug name to check for interaction with Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate
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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
Acetazolamide
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate.
Agmatine
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Agmatine.
Alcuronium
The therapeutic efficacy of Alcuronium can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate.
Alfentanil
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Alfentanil.
Alloin
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate is combined with Alloin.
Aloglutamol
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Aloglutamol.
Alphacetylmethadol
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Alphacetylmethadol.
Alphaprodine
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Alphaprodine.
Amiloride
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiloride is combined with Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate.
Amiodarone
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Amiodarone.
Amlodipine
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Amlodipine.
Apramycin
The risk or severity of neuromuscular blockade can be increased when Apramycin is combined with Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate.
Aranidipine
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Aranidipine.
Arbekacin
The risk or severity of neuromuscular blockade can be increased when Arbekacin is combined with Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate.
Atracurium
The therapeutic efficacy of Atracurium can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate.
Atracurium besylate
The therapeutic efficacy of Atracurium besylate can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate.
Azelnidipine
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Azelnidipine.
Azosemide
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azosemide is combined with Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate.
Barnidipine
The therapeutic efficacy of Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate can be decreased when used in combination with Barnidipine.
Bekanamycin
The risk or severity of neuromuscular blockade can be increased when Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate is combined with Bekanamycin.
15 References
  1. 1 . Guerrera MP, Volpe SL, Mao JJ: Therapeutic uses of magnesium. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Jul 15;80(2):157-62.PubMed: 19621856
  2. 2 . Zimmermann G, Zhou D, Taussig R: Mutations uncover a role for two magnesium ions in the catalytic mechanism of adenylyl cyclase. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jul 31;273(31):19650-5.PubMed: 9677392
  3. 3 . Rodriguez-Moran M, Guerrero-Romero F: Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2003 Apr;26(4):1147-52.PubMed: 12663588
  4. 4 . Jin K, Kim TH, Kim YH, Kim YW: Additional antihypertensive effect of magnesium supplementation with an angiotensin II receptor blocker in hypomagnesemic rats. Korean J Intern Med. 2013 Mar;28(2):197-205. doi: 10.3904/kjim.2013.28.2.197. Epub 2013 Feb 27.PubMed: 23526071
  5. 5 . Touyz RM, Milne FJ: Magnesium supplementation attenuates, but does not prevent, development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Hypertens. 1999 Aug;12(8 Pt 1):757-65.PubMed: 10480467
  6. 6 . Kh R, Khullar M, Kashyap M, Pandhi P, Uppal R: Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on blood pressure, platelet aggregation and calcium handling in deoxycorticosterone acetate induced hypertension in rats. J Hypertens. 2000 Jul;18(7):919-26.PubMed: 10930190
  7. 7 . Yu L, Xu L, Xu M, Wan B, Yu L, Huang Q.: Role of Mg2+ ions in protein kinase phosphorylation: insights from molecular dynamics simulations of ATP-kinase complexes Molecular Simulation. 2011 September 20;37(14):1143-1150.PubMed:
  8. 8 . 29. (2012). In Rang and Dale's Pharmacology (7th ed., pp. 364). Edinburgh: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone.
  9. 9 . 46. (2011). In Goodman and Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics, Pharmacological basis of therapeutics (12th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  10. 10 . 2. (2013). In Clinical naturopathic medicine (pp. 76-78). Elsevier Health Sciences, 2013.
  11. 11 . Civitelli, R., Ziambaras, K. and Leelawattana, R. (1997). 6. In Metabolic Bone Disease and Clinically Related Disorders (pp. 191-194). Academic Press.
  12. 12 . Santa Cruz Biotechnology Link
  13. 13 . PLASMA-LYTE 56 and 5% Dextrose Injection (Multiple Electrolytes and Dextrose Injection, Type 1, USP) in VIAFLEX Plastic Container: Drug Label Link
  14. 14 . Magnesium Absorption in Humans Link
  15. 15 . TOXNET Magnesium compounds Link