Description

Simple

A medication used to treat conditions caused by low levels of magnesium and other ions in the body.

Clinical

An ionic compound and source of magnesium used for electrolyte replenishment and conditions associated with magnesium deficiencies.

Overview

Magnesium chloride salts are highly soluble in water and the hydrated form of magnesium chloride can be extracted from brine or sea water.

Pharmacology

Indication

Magnesium chloride is used in several medical and topical (skin related) applications. Magnesium chloride usp, anhydrous uses as electrolyte replenisher, pharmaceutic necessity for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis fluids.

Pharmacodynamic

Magnesium is important as a cofactor in many enzymatic reactions in the body involving protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism (at least 300 enzymatic reactions require magnesium). Actions on lipoprotein lipase have been found to be important in reducing serum cholesterol and on sodium/potassi... Read more

Mechanism of action

Mechanism of action of magnesium chloride studied in 10 adult volunteers. Results suggested magnesium ion in duodenum is relatively weak stimulus to pancreas and gall bladder. It is weak stimulant to cholecystokinin release and inhibits net jejunal water absorption.
The oral administration of a si... Read more

Absorption

Oral: Inversely proportional to amount ingested; 40% to 60% under controlled dietary conditions; 15% to 36% at higher doses

Protein binding

30%, to albumin

Volume of distribution

Bone (50% to 60%); extracellular fluid (1% to 2%)

Clearance

Maximum magnesium clearance is directly proportional to creatinine clearance.

Half life

Elimination half-life has been reported to be 27.7 hours following an overdose of 400 mEq magnesium in an adult.

Route of elimination

Magnesium is excreted in urine. Unabsorbed magnesium is excreted in feces

Toxicity

Mouse LD50 775mg/kg (intraperitoneal)
Mouse LD50 : 7600mg/kg (oral)
Rat LD 50 : 8100mg/kg (oral)
Rat LD50 176mg/kg (intravenous)
Severe toxicity occurs most often after intravenous infusions. It can also occur after chronic excessive oral doses, often in patients with renal insufficiency. Early... Read more

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

  • Route:
    • Intraperitoneal
  • Dose Form:
    • Injection
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Isomaltose intolerance
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108623
  • Route:
    • Intraperitoneal
  • Dose Form:
    • Injection
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Glycogen Storage Disease
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0028154
  • Route:
    • Intraperitoneal
  • Dose Form:
    • Injection
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Severe lactic acidosis
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107948
      • Modification Of:
        • Base:
          • Name: Lactic Acidosis
          • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0028962
        • Severity:
          • Includes:
            • severe
  • Route:
    • Intra-arterial
  • Hypersensitivity:
    • false
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Administration without sodium bicarbonate buffer
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108624
  • Route:
    • Irrigation
    • Ophthalmic
  • Dose Form:
    • Solution
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: None listed
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108620
  • Route:
    • Intraperitoneal
  • Dose Form:
    • Injection
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Allergy to cornstarch
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107946
  • Route:
    • Intraperitoneal
  • Dose Form:
    • Injection
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Allergy to icodextrin
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108621
  • Route:
    • Intraperitoneal
  • Dose Form:
    • Injection
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Maltose intolerance
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108622

Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.

Interactions

Type in a drug name to check for interaction with Magnesium chloride
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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5
The serum concentration of Magnesium chloride can be increased when it is combined with 1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5.
1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2
The serum concentration of Magnesium chloride can be increased when it is combined with 1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2.
3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl Diphosphate
Magnesium chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of 3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl Diphosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Abacavir
Abacavir may decrease the excretion rate of Magnesium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
Acarbose
Acarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Magnesium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
Aceclofenac
Aceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Magnesium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
Acemetacin
Acemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Magnesium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetaminophen
Acetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Magnesium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetazolamide
Acetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Magnesium chloride which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acid
Acetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Magnesium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
Aclidinium
Aclidinium may decrease the excretion rate of Magnesium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
Acrivastine
Magnesium chloride may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
Acyclovir
Acyclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Magnesium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
Adefovir
Adefovir may decrease the excretion rate of Magnesium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
Adefovir dipivoxil
Adefovir dipivoxil may decrease the excretion rate of Magnesium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
Agmatine
The risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Agmatine is combined with Magnesium chloride.
Albutrepenonacog alfa
Magnesium chloride may decrease the excretion rate of Albutrepenonacog alfa which could result in a higher serum level.
Alclofenac
Alclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Magnesium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
Alcuronium
The therapeutic efficacy of Alcuronium can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium chloride.
Aldesleukin
Aldesleukin may decrease the excretion rate of Magnesium chloride which could result in a higher serum level.
4 References
  1. 1 . DRUGS.COM Link
  2. 2 . Pubchem Link
  3. 3 . Toxnet Link
  4. 4 . ChemIDplus Link