Description

Simple

An ingredient found in a variety of nutritional products.

Clinical

A vasodilatory niacin found in diet supplements.

Overview

Xanthinol is a very potent water-soluble derivative of niacin that can be found in diet supplements. It is also known as xanthinol nicotinate. [6] Xaninthol is known to be a potent vasodilator that can easily pass through the cell membrane and once inside the cell it causes an increase in glucose metabolism resulting in an increased energy. [7] It was approved as a drug in 1998 in Canada and nowadays its status is cancelled post marketing.

Pharmacology

Indication

Xanthinol is primarily used in diet supplements to increase the brain metabolism of glucose and obtain ATP. Xanthinol is also used as an agent to reduced cholesterol as it is a vasodilator.[7] Its action allows having a... Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Reports indicate that xanthinol increases blood flow in the vascular beds. The use of xanthinol in clinical trials have reported improvements in the performance of healthy elderly individuals in short- and long-term memory tests.[ Read more

Mechanism of action

The positively charged xanthinol ion is thought to help the transportation of the nicotinic acid into the cell since the later cannot freely diffuse through the cell membrane. The mechanism of action is thought to be related to present influence in the cell metabolism through the nucleotides NAD and... Read more

Absorption

Xanthinol is readily absorbed in the body with an absorption half life of 0.4 h.[4] After absorption, xanthinol nicotinate rapidly d... Read more

Protein binding

From the administered dose of xanthinol between 90.9 and 100% can be retreived in the plasma.[ Read more

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of xanthinol is 0.93 L/kg.

Clearance

The total body clearance rate for xanthinol is 0.63 L h/kg.

Half life

The reported elimination half-life of xanthinol is 1.67h.

Route of elimination

In urine, the two stereoisomeric forms of the xanthinol metabolites represents about 7-8% of the eliminated xanthinol.[ Read more

Toxicity

It is thought to cause flushing, hypotension and abdominal pain.[5]

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

Information currently not available.

Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.

Interactions

Type in a drug name to check for interaction with Xanthinol
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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
Isosorbide mononitrate
Xanthinol may increase the vasodilatory activities of Isosorbide mononitrate.
Patent Blue
The therapeutic efficacy of Xanthinol can be decreased when used in combination with Patent Blue.
8 References
  1. 1 . Loriaux SM, Deijen JB, Orlebeke JF, De Swart JH: The effects of nicotinic acid and xanthinol nicotinate on human memory in different categories of age. A double blind study. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1985;87(4):390-5.PubMed: 3936095
  2. 2 . Liu HQ, Su MX, Di B, Hang TJ, Hu Y, Tian XQ, Zhang YD, Shen JP: Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of xanthinol in human plasma and its application in a bioequivalence study of xanthinol nicotinate tablets. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2008 Sep 15;873(1):20-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.07.045. Epub 2008 Aug 7.PubMed: 18718822
  3. 3 . Tauscher M, Eckhardt G, Geisel B, Credner K: [Isolation and structure determination of metabolites of xantinol from rat urine (author's transl)]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1976;26(7):1342-4.PubMed: 1036921
  4. 4 . Seyffart G. (1992). Drug dosage in renal insufficiency (2nd ed.). Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
  5. 5 . Turner P. and Volans G. (1986). The drugs handbook 1985-86. Macmillan Reference Books.
  6. 6 . Exercise Link
  7. 7 . Smart publications Link
  8. 8 . Xanthinol Link