Description

Simple

A medication used to reverse cancer-related elevated calcium levels.

Clinical

A medication indicated for cancer-related hypercalcemia.

Overview

Gallium nitrate is a drug that is used to treat hyper-calcemia, or too much calcium in the blood. This condition may occur when individuals develop various types of cancer. Gallium nitrate is also known by the common brand name Ganite.

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of hypercalcemia. Also intended for the treatment of non-hodgkin's lymphoma.

Pharmacodynamic

Gallium nitrate exerts hypocalcemic effect by inhibiting calcium resorption from bone, possibly by stabilizing bone matrix, thereby reducing increased bone turnover. Gallium nitrate inhibits the growth of various lymphoma cell lines in vitro and exhibits antitumor activity in patients with lymphoma.... Read more

Mechanism of action

Gallium nitrate is believed to exert a hypocalcemic effect by inhibiting calcium resorption from bone. Gallium nitrate localizes preferentially where bone resorption and remodeling is occurring, and inhibits osteoclast activity. Inhibition of resorption may occur via a reduction in increased bone tu... Read more

Absorption

Information currently not available.

Protein binding

Information currently not available.

Volume of distribution

Information currently not available.

Clearance

0.15 L/hr/kg [cancer patients receiving daily infusion of gallium nitrate at a dose of 200 mg/m2 for 5 or 7 days]

Half life

Alpha: 1 hour. Beta: 24 hours, but lengthens to 72 to 115 hours with prolonged intravenous infusion.

Route of elimination

Gallium nitrate is not metabolized either by the liver or the kidney and appears to be significantly excreted via the kidney.

Toxicity

Information currently not available.

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Severe Renal Impairment
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0045819
      • Modification Of:
        • Base:
          • Name: Renal Impairment
          • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0031781
        • Severity:
          • Includes:
            • severe

Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.

Interactions

Type in a drug name to check for interaction with Gallium nitrate
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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
2-Methoxyethanol
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 2-Methoxyethanol is combined with Gallium nitrate.
9-(N-methyl-L-isoleucine)-cyclosporin A
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gallium nitrate is combined with 9-(N-methyl-L-isoleucine)-cyclosporin A.
Abatacept
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Abatacept is combined with Gallium nitrate.
Abetimus
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gallium nitrate is combined with Abetimus.
Acteoside
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gallium nitrate is combined with Acteoside.
Adalimumab
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Adalimumab is combined with Gallium nitrate.
Adenovirus type 7 vaccine live
The risk or severity of infection can be increased when Adenovirus type 7 vaccine live is combined with Gallium nitrate.
Afelimomab
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Afelimomab is combined with Gallium nitrate.
Aldesleukin
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Gallium nitrate.
Aldosterone
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldosterone is combined with Gallium nitrate.
Alefacept
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alefacept is combined with Gallium nitrate.
Alemtuzumab
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alemtuzumab is combined with Gallium nitrate.
Altretamine
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Altretamine is combined with Gallium nitrate.
Amsacrine
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amsacrine is combined with Gallium nitrate.
Anakinra
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Anakinra is combined with Gallium nitrate.
Anthrax immune globulin human
The therapeutic efficacy of Anthrax immune globulin human can be decreased when used in combination with Gallium nitrate.
Anthrax vaccine
The risk or severity of infection can be increased when Anthrax vaccine is combined with Gallium nitrate.
Antilymphocyte immunoglobulin (horse)
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gallium nitrate is combined with Antilymphocyte immunoglobulin (horse).
Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit) is combined with Gallium nitrate.
Apremilast
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gallium nitrate is combined with Apremilast.
4 References
  1. 1 . Yang M, Kroft SH, Chitambar CR: Gene expression analysis of gallium-resistant and gallium-sensitive lymphoma cells reveals a role for metal-responsive transcription factor-1, metallothionein-2A, and zinc transporter-1 in modulating the antineoplastic activity of gallium nitrate. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007 Feb;6(2):633-43.PubMed: 17308060
  2. 2 . Leyland-Jones B: Treating cancer-related hypercalcemia with gallium nitrate. J Support Oncol. 2004 Nov-Dec;2(6):509-16.PubMed: 15605917
  3. 3 . Chitambar CR: Apoptotic mechanisms of gallium nitrate: basic and clinical investigations. Oncology (Williston Park). 2004 Nov;18(13 Suppl 10):39-44.PubMed: 15651176
  4. 4 . Cvitkovic F, Armand JP, Tubiana-Hulin M, Rossi JF, Warrell RP Jr: Randomized, double-blind, phase II trial of gallium nitrate compared with pamidronate for acute control of cancer-related hypercalcemia. Cancer J. 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):47-53.PubMed: 16613662