Description

Simple

A medication used for medical conditions of nutrient deprivation or low blood sugar levels.

Clinical

A most commonly occurring isomer of glucose used as a carbohydrate supplementation in case of nutrient deprivation and metabolic disorders, such as hypoglycemia.

Overview

Glucose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) generated during phosynthesis involving water, carbon and sunlight in plants. It is produced in humans via hepatic gluconeogenesis and breakdown of polymeric glucose forms (glycogenolysis). It circulates in human circulation as blood glucose and acts as an essential energy source for many organisms through aerobic or anaerobic respiration and fermentation.[2] It is primarily stored as starch in plants and glycogen in animals to be used in various metabolic processes in the cellular level. Its aldohexose stereoisomer, dextrose or D-glucose, is the most commonly occurring isomer of glucose in nature. L-glucose is a synthesized enantiomer that is used as a low-calorie sweetener and laxative.[10] The unspecified form of glucose is commonly supplied as an injection for nutritional supplementation or metabolic disorders where glucose levels are improperly regulated.[12] Glucose is listed on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most i... Read more

Pharmacology

Indication

Glucose pharmaceutical formulations (oral tablets, injections) are indicated for caloric supply and carbohydrate supplementation in case of nutrient deprivation. It is also used for metabolic disorders such as hypoglycemia.[ Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Blood glucose is an obligatory energy source for humans involved in various cellular activities, and it also acts as a signaling molecule for diverse glucose-sensing molecules and proteins. Glucose undergoes oxidation into carbon dioxide, water, and yields energy molecules in the process of glycolys... Read more

Mechanism of action

Glucose supplies most of the energy to all tissues by generating energy molecules ATP and NADH during a series of metabolism reactions called glycolysis. Glycolysis can be divided into two main phases where the preparatory phase is initiated by the phosphorylation of glucose by hexokinase to form gl... Read more

Absorption

Polysaccharides can be broken down into smaller units by pancreatic and intestinal glycosidases or intestinal flora. Sodium-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1 and GLUT2 (SLC2A2) play predominant roles in intestinal transport of glucose into the circulation.[ Read more

Protein binding

Information currently not available.

Volume of distribution

The mean volume of distribution after intravenous infusion is 10.6L.[ Read more

Clearance

The mean metabolic clearance rate of glucose (MCR) for the 10 subjects studied at the higher insulin level was 2.27 ± 0.37 ml/kg/min at euglycemia and fell to 1.51±0.21 ml/kg/ at hyperglycemia. The mean MCR for the six subjects studied at the lower insulin level was 1.91 ± 0.31 ml/kg/min at euglycem... Read more

Half life

The approximate half-life is 14.3 minutes following intravenous infusion. Gut glucose half-life was markedly higher in females (79 ± 2 min) than in males (65 ± 3 min, P < 0.0001) and negatively related to body height (r = -0.481; P < 0.0001).[ Read more

Route of elimination

Glucose can be renally excreted.[8]

Toxicity

Oral LD50 value in rats is 25800mg/kg. The administration of glucose infusions can cause fluid and solute overloading resulting in dilution of the serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states, or pulmonary edema. Hypersensitivity reactions may also occur including anaphylactic/a... Read more

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

Information currently not available.

Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.

Interactions

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13 References
  1. 1 . Thorens B, Mueckler M: Glucose transporters in the 21st Century. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Feb;298(2):E141-5. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00712.2009. Epub 2009 Dec 15.PubMed: 20009031
  2. 2 . Ferraris RP: Dietary and developmental regulation of intestinal sugar transport. Biochem J. 2001 Dec 1;360(Pt 2):265-76.PubMed: 11716754
  3. 3 . Roder PV, Geillinger KE, Zietek TS, Thorens B, Koepsell H, Daniel H: The role of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in intestinal glucose transport and sensing. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 26;9(2):e89977. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089977. eCollection 2014.PubMed: 24587162
  4. 4 . Deng D, Sun P, Yan C, Ke M, Jiang X, Xiong L, Ren W, Hirata K, Yamamoto M, Fan S, Yan N: Molecular basis of ligand recognition and transport by glucose transporters. Nature. 2015 Oct 15;526(7573):391-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14655. Epub 2015 Jul 15.PubMed: 26176916
  5. 5 . Jiang G, Zhang BB: Glucagon and regulation of glucose metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Apr;284(4):E671-8.PubMed: 12626323
  6. 6 . Anderwald C, Gastaldelli A, Tura A, Krebs M, Promintzer-Schifferl M, Kautzky-Willer A, Stadler M, DeFronzo RA, Pacini G, Bischof MG: Mechanism and effects of glucose absorption during an oral glucose tolerance test among females and males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb;96(2):515-24. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-1398. Epub 2010 Dec 8.PubMed: 21147888
  7. 7 . Kouider S, Kolb FE, Lippmann R: [Behavior of various blood constituents (glucose, fructose, insulin, lactate, pyruvate, free fatty acids, inorganic phosphate) and the half-life of monosaccharides in plasma after i.v infusion of glucose, fructose, galactose and invert sugar solutions in ruminants. 3. Studies in sheep]. Arch Exp Veterinarmed. 1978;32(5):715-25.PubMed: 736717
  8. 8 . JOKIPII SG, TURPEINEN O: Kinetics of elimination of glucose from the blood during and after a continuous intravenous injection. J Clin Invest. 1954 Mar;33(3):452-8.PubMed: 13143092
  9. 9 . Revers RR, Kolterman OG, Olefsky JM: Relationship between serum glucose level and the metabolic clearance rate of glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 1983 Jul;32(7):627-32.PubMed: 6345242
  10. 10 . Rang, H. P. and Dale, M. M. (2012). Rang and Dale's Pharmacology (7th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone.
  11. 11 . Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, Matsudaira P, Baltimore D, and Darnell J. (2000). Molecular Cell Biology (4th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman.
  12. 12 . Baxter Health GLUCOSE INTRAVENOUS INFUSION BP Product information Link
  13. 13 . Glucose injection (Viaflex bag) Product information Link