Description

Simple

An antiviral medication used to treat viral eye infections in patients who have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Clinical

An antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Overview

Valganciclovir hydrochloride (Valcyte, manufactured by Roche) is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus infections. As the L-valyl ester of ganciclovir, it is actually a prodrug for ganciclovir. After oral administration, it is rapidly converted to ganciclovir by intestinal and hepatic esterases.

Pharmacology

Indication

Valganciclovir is an antiviral medication used for the treatment of cytomegalovirus infections.

Pharmacodynamic

Valganciclovir is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus infections. As the L-valyl ester of ganciclovir, it is actually a prodrug for ganciclovir. After oral administration, it is rapidly converted to ganciclovir by intestinal and hepatic esterases. After this, it (being an analogue... Read more

Mechanism of action

Valganciclovir is a prodrug of ganciclovir that exists as a mixture of two diastereomers. After administration, these diastereomers are rapidly converted to ganciclovir by hepatic and intestinal esterases. In cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infected cells, ganciclovir is initially phosphorylated to the monoph... Read more

Absorption

Valganciclovir is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and the absolute bioavailability from valganciclovir tablets (following administration with food) is approximately 60%.

Protein binding

Plasma protein binding of ganciclovir is 1% to 2% over concentrations of 0.5 and 51 mg/mL.

Volume of distribution

0.703 ± 0.134 L/kg

Clearance

3.07+/- 0.64 mL/min/kg [IV administration]5.3 L/hr [Patient with creatinine clearance of 70.4 mL/min]

Half life

Approximately 4.08 hours. Increased in patients with renal function impairment.

Route of elimination

The major route of elimination of valganciclovir is by renal excretion as ganciclovir through glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion.

Toxicity

It is expected that an overdose of valganciclovir could also possibly result in increased renal toxicity.

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

Information currently not available.

Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.

Interactions

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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
7-Nitroindazole
The therapeutic efficacy of 7-Nitroindazole can be decreased when used in combination with Valganciclovir.
Abacavir
The risk or severity of cytopenia can be increased when Valganciclovir is combined with Abacavir.
Acarbose
Acarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Valganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Aceclofenac
Aceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Valganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Acemetacin
Acemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Valganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetaminophen
Acetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Valganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetazolamide
Valganciclovir may increase the excretion rate of Acetazolamide which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acid
Acetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Valganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Aclidinium
Valganciclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Aclidinium which could result in a higher serum level.
Acrivastine
Valganciclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
Acyclovir
Acyclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Valganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Adefovir
The risk or severity of cytopenia can be increased when Valganciclovir is combined with Adefovir.
Adefovir dipivoxil
Adefovir dipivoxil may decrease the excretion rate of Valganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Adenovirus type 7 vaccine live
The therapeutic efficacy of Adenovirus type 7 vaccine live can be decreased when used in combination with Valganciclovir.
Albutrepenonacog alfa
Valganciclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Albutrepenonacog alfa which could result in a higher serum level.
Alclofenac
Alclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Valganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Aldesleukin
Aldesleukin may decrease the excretion rate of Valganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Allopurinol
Allopurinol may decrease the excretion rate of Valganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Allylestrenol
Allylestrenol may decrease the excretion rate of Valganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Almasilate
Valganciclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Almasilate which could result in a higher serum level.
1 References
  1. 1 . Umapathy NS, Ganapathy V, Ganapathy ME: Transport of amino acid esters and the amino-acid-based prodrug valganciclovir by the amino acid transporter ATB(0,+). Pharm Res. 2004 Jul;21(7):1303-10.PubMed: 15290873