Description

Simple

Clinical

Overview

Gamma hydroxybutyric acid, commonly abbreviated GHB, is a therapeutic drug which is illegal in multiple countries. It is currently regulated in the US and sold by Jazz Pharmaceuticals under the name Xyrem. However, it is important to note that GHB is a designated Orphan drug (in 1985). Today Xyrem is a Schedule III drug; however GHB remains a Schedule I drug and the illicit use of Xyrem falls under penalties of Schedule I. GHB is a naturally occurring substance found in the central nervous system, wine, beef, small citrus fruits and almost all other living creatures in small amounts. It is used illegally under the street names Juice, Liquid Ecstasy or simply G, either as an intoxicant, or as a date rape drug. Xyrem is a central nervous system depressant that reduces excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy.

Pharmacology

Indication

Used as a general anesthetic, to treat conditions such as insomnia, clinical depression, narcolepsy, and alcoholism, and to improve athletic performance.

Pharmacodynamic

GHB predominantly works at two distinct binding sites in the central nervous system: it works as an agonist at the newly-characterized excitatory GHB receptor, while acting as a weak agonist at the inhibitory GABAB receptor. Since it is a naturally occurring substance, its physiological action is si... Read more

Mechanism of action

GHB is present at much higher concentrations in the brain, where it activates GABA-B receptors to exert its sedative effects. With high affinity, GHB binds to excitatory GHB receptors that are densely expressed throughout the brain, including the cotex and hippocampus. There is some evidence in rese... Read more

Absorption

Information currently not available.

Protein binding

Information currently not available.

Volume of distribution

190 to 384 mL/kg

Clearance

apparent oral cl=9.1 mL/min/kg [healthy adults receiving a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg]4.5 mL/min/kg [cirrhotic patients without ascites receiving a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg]4.1 mL/min/kg [cirrhotic patients with ascites receiving a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg]

Half life

30 to 60 minutes

Route of elimination

Animal studies indicate that metabolism is the major elimination pathway for sodium oxybate, producing carbon dioxide and water via the tricarboxylic acid (Krebs) cycle and secondarily by beta-oxidation. Succinic acid enters the Krebs cycle where it is metabolized to carbon dioxide and water. Fecal... Read more

Toxicity

High doses of GHB may lead to nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, agitation, visual disturbances, depressed breathing, amnesia, unconsciousness, and death in some cases.

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

Information currently not available.

Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.

Interactions

Type in a drug name to check for interaction with gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid
Type a drug name in the box above to get started
  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-Methoxyamphetamine
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
7-Nitroindazole
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is combined with 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline.
Acepromazine
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is combined with Acepromazine.
Aceprometazine
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is combined with Aceprometazine.
Acetazolamide
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid.
Acetophenazine
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetophenazine is combined with gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid.
Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is combined with Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate.
Aclidinium
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Aclidinium.
Adinazolam
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Adinazolam is combined with gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid.
Adipiplon
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is combined with Adipiplon.
Agomelatine
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is combined with Agomelatine.
Ajulemic acid
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ajulemic acid is combined with gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid.
Alaproclate
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is combined with Alaproclate.
Alcuronium
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is combined with Alcuronium.
Alfaxalone
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid is combined with Alfaxalone.
Alfentanil
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid.