Description

Simple

A medication or mineral in nutritional supplements and multivitamins used to treat or prevent conditions associated with low calcium levels.

Clinical

A mineral found in over-the-counter supplements or prescription formulations used for the treatment of specific medical conditions related to calcium deficiency.

Overview

Calcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. The skeleton acts as a major mineral storage site for the element and releases Ca2+ ions into the bloodstream under controlled conditions. Circulating calcium is either in the free, ionized form or bound to blood proteins such as serum albumin. Although calcium flow to and from the bone is neutral, about 5 mmol is turned over a day. Bone serves as an important storage point for calcium, as it contains 99% of the total body calcium. Low calcium intake may also be a risk factor in the development of osteoporosis. The best-absorbed form of calcium from a pill is a calcium salt like carbonate or phosphate. Calcium gluconate and calcium lactate are absorbed well by pregnant women. Seniors absorb calcium lactate, gluconate and citrate better unless they take their calcium supplement with a full breakfast.

Pharmacology

Indication

Calcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. It is vital in cell signaling, muscular contractions, bone health, and signalling cascades.

Pharmacodynamic

Calcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell. It plays an important role in signal transduction pathways, where it acts as a second messenger, in neurotransmitter release from neurons, contraction of all muscle cell types, and fertilization. Many e... Read more

Mechanism of action

Calcium plays a vital role in the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of organisms and of the cell, particularly in signal transduction pathways. More than 500 human proteins are known to bind or transport calcium. The skeleton acts as a major mineral storage site for the element and releases Ca2... Read more

Absorption

Information currently not available.

Protein binding

Information currently not available.

Volume of distribution

Information currently not available.

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

Information currently not available.

Route of elimination

The kidney excretes 250 mmol a day in urine, and resorbs 245 mmol, leading to a net loss in the urine of 5 mmol/d.

Toxicity

Information currently not available.

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

Information currently not available.

Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.

Interactions

Type in a drug name to check for interaction with Calcium
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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
(R)-warfarin
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium can be decreased when used in combination with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-Warfarin
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium can be decreased when used in combination with (S)-Warfarin.
1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium is combined with 1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5.
1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium is combined with 1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2.
3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl Diphosphate
Calcium can cause a decrease in the absorption of 3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl Diphosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
4-hydroxycoumarin
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium can be decreased when used in combination with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
Abciximab
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium can be decreased when used in combination with Abciximab.
Acebutolol
The therapeutic efficacy of Acebutolol can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium.
Acenocoumarol
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium can be decreased when used in combination with Acenocoumarol.
Acetyldigitoxin
Calcium may increase the arrhythmogenic and cardiotoxic activities of Acetyldigitoxin.
Acetyldigoxin
Calcium may increase the arrhythmogenic and cardiotoxic activities of Acetyldigoxin.
Acetylsalicylic acid
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium can be decreased when used in combination with Acetylsalicylic acid.
Alendronic acid
The serum concentration of Alendronic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Calcium.
Alfacalcidol
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium is combined with Alfacalcidol.
Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor
Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor may increase the thrombogenic activities of Calcium.
Alprenolol
The therapeutic efficacy of Alprenolol can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium.
Alteplase
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium can be decreased when used in combination with Alteplase.
Amediplase
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium can be decreased when used in combination with Amediplase.
Aminocaproic acid
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aminocaproic acid is combined with Calcium.
Aminomethylbenzoic acid
Aminomethylbenzoic acid may increase the thrombogenic activities of Calcium.
5 References
  1. 1 . Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, Dallal GE: Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 4;337(10):670-6.PubMed: 9278463
  2. 2 . Weingarten MA, Zalmanovici A, Yaphe J: Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD003548.PubMed: 16034903
  3. 3 . Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, Bassford T, Beresford SA, Black HR, Blanchette P, Bonds DE, Brunner RL, Brzyski RG, Caan B, Cauley JA, Chlebowski RT, Cummings SR, Granek I, Hays J, Heiss G, Hendrix SL, Howard BV, Hsia J, Hubbell FA, Johnson KC, Judd H, Kotchen JM, Kuller LH, Langer RD, Lasser NL, Limacher MC, Ludlam S, Manson JE, Margolis KL, McGowan J, Ockene JK, O'Sullivan MJ, Phillips L, Prentice RL, Sarto GE, Stefanick ML, Van Horn L, Wactawski-Wende J, Whitlock E, Anderson GL, Assaf AR, Barad D: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 16;354(7):669-83.PubMed: 16481635
  4. 4 . Grant AM, Avenell A, Campbell MK, McDonald AM, MacLennan GS, McPherson GC, Anderson FH, Cooper C, Francis RM, Donaldson C, Gillespie WJ, Robinson CM, Torgerson DJ, Wallace WA: Oral vitamin D3 and calcium for secondary prevention of low-trauma fractures in elderly people (Randomised Evaluation of Calcium Or vitamin D, RECORD): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005 May 7-13;365(9471):1621-8.PubMed: 15885294
  5. 5 . Porthouse J, Cockayne S, King C, Saxon L, Steele E, Aspray T, Baverstock M, Birks Y, Dumville J, Francis R, Iglesias C, Puffer S, Sutcliffe A, Watt I, Torgerson DJ: Randomised controlled trial of calcium and supplementation with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) for prevention of fractures in primary care. BMJ. 2005 Apr 30;330(7498):1003.PubMed: 15860827