Description

Simple

A medication used to treat conditions caused by low calcium levels, or high potassium and magnesium levels in the blood.

Clinical

An ionic compound used for the treatment of hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia, and as an antidote to magnesium intoxication due to overdosage of magnesium sulfate.

Overview

Calcium chloride is an ionic compound of calcium and chlorine. It is highly soluble in water and it is deliquescent. It is a salt that is solid at room temperature, and it behaves as a typical ionic halide. It has several common applications such as brine for refrigeration plants, ice and dust control on roads, and in cement. It can be produced directly from limestone, but large amounts are also produced as a by-product of the Solvay process. Because of its hygroscopic nature, it must be kept in tightly-sealed containers.

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of hypocalcemia in those conditions requiring a prompt increase in blood plasma calcium levels, for the treatment of magnesium intoxication due to overdosage of magnesium sulfate, and used to combat the deleterious effects of hyperkalemia as measured by electrocardiographic (ECG),... Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Calcium is the fifth most abundant element in the body and the major fraction is in the bony structure. Calcium plays important physiological roles, many of which are poorly understood. It is essential for the functional integrity of the nervous and muscular systems. It is necessary for normal cardi... Read more

Mechanism of action

Calcium chloride in water dissociates to provide calcium (Ca2+) and chloride (Cl-) ions. They are normal constituents of the body fluids and are dependent on various physiological mechanisms for maintenance of balance between intake and output. For hyperkalemia, the influx of c... Read more

Absorption

Information currently not available.

Protein binding

Information currently not available.

Volume of distribution

Information currently not available.

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

Information currently not available.

Route of elimination

Approximately 80% of body calcium is excreted in the feces as insoluble salts; urinary excretion accounts for the remaining 20%.

Toxicity

Too rapid injection may produce lowering of blood pressure and cardiac syncope. Persistent hypercalcemia from overdosage of calcium is unlikely because of rapid excretion.

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

  • Route:
    • Parenteral
  • Regions: US
  • With Therapies:
      • Name: Electrosurgical procedures
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108229
  • Route:
    • Intravenous
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Cardiac resuscitation
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108228
      • Name: Ventricular Fibrillation
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0000505
  • Route:
    • Intravenous
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Digitalis toxicity
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0089410
      • Combination Of:
        • Caused By:
            • Name: Digitalis intoxication
            • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0021762
        • Included Conditions:
            • Name: Tachyarrhythmia
            • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0007727

Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.

Interactions

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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
(R)-warfarin
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium chloride can be decreased when used in combination with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-Warfarin
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium chloride can be decreased when used in combination with (S)-Warfarin.
1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium chloride is combined with 1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5.
1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium chloride is combined with 1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2.
3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl Diphosphate
Calcium Chloride can cause a decrease in the absorption of 3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl Diphosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
4-hydroxycoumarin
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium chloride can be decreased when used in combination with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
Abciximab
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium Chloride can be decreased when used in combination with Abciximab.
Acebutolol
The therapeutic efficacy of Acebutolol can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Chloride.
Acenocoumarol
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium chloride can be decreased when used in combination with Acenocoumarol.
Acetyldigitoxin
Calcium chloride may increase the arrhythmogenic and cardiotoxic activities of Acetyldigitoxin.
Acetyldigoxin
Calcium chloride may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Acetyldigoxin.
Acetylsalicylic acid
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium chloride can be decreased when used in combination with Acetylsalicylic acid.
Agmatine
The therapeutic efficacy of Agmatine can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Chloride.
Alendronic acid
The serum concentration of Alendronic acid can be decreased when it is combined with Calcium Chloride.
Alfacalcidol
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium chloride is combined with Alfacalcidol.
Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor
Alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor may increase the thrombogenic activities of Calcium Chloride.
Alprenolol
The therapeutic efficacy of Alprenolol can be decreased when used in combination with Calcium Chloride.
Alteplase
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium Chloride can be decreased when used in combination with Alteplase.
Amediplase
The therapeutic efficacy of Calcium Chloride can be decreased when used in combination with Amediplase.
Aminocaproic acid
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aminocaproic acid is combined with Calcium chloride.