Description

Simple

An antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections in the respiratory tract.

Clinical

A quinolone antibacterial agent used for the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia caused by susceptible bacteria.

Overview

Gemifloxacin is a quinolone antibacterial agent with a broad-spectrum activity that is used in the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and mild-to-moderate pneumonia. It is available in oral formulations. Gemifloxacin acts by inhibiting DNA synthesis through the inhibition of both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, which are essential for bacterial growth.

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of bacterial infection caused by susceptible strains such as S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, or M. catarrhalis, S. pneumoniae (including multi-drug resistant strains [MDRSP]), M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, or K. p... Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Gemifloxacin is a quinolone/fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Gemifloxacin is bactericidal and its mode of action depends on blocking of bacterial DNA replication by binding itself to an enzyme called DNA gyrase, which allows the untwisting required to replicate one DNA double helix into two. Notably the... Read more

Mechanism of action

The bactericidal action of gemifloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination.

Absorption

Rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The absolute bioavailability averages approximately 71%.

Protein binding

60-70%

Volume of distribution

1.66 to 12.12 L/kg

Clearance

renal cl=11.6+/- 3.9 L/hr [Healthy subjects receiving repeat doses of 320 mg orally]

Half life

7 (± 2) hours

Route of elimination

Gemifloxacin and its metabolites are excreted via dual routes of excretion.Following oral administration of gemifloxacin to healthy subjects, a mean (± SD) of 61 ± 9.5% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 36 ± 9.3% in the urine as unchanged drug and metabolites. The mean (± SD) renal clearance... Read more

Toxicity

Information currently not available.

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

  • Hypersensitivity:
    • Fluoroquinolones
  • Regions: US

Food Interactions

  • Take with or without food. The absorption is unaffected by food.

Interactions

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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
(R)-warfarin
The therapeutic efficacy of (R)-warfarin can be increased when used in combination with Gemifloxacin.
(S)-Warfarin
The therapeutic efficacy of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when used in combination with Gemifloxacin.
2,4-thiazolidinedione
The therapeutic efficacy of 2,4-thiazolidinedione can be increased when used in combination with Gemifloxacin.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine
The metabolism of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be decreased when combined with Gemifloxacin.
4-hydroxycoumarin
The therapeutic efficacy of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when used in combination with Gemifloxacin.
6-O-benzylguanine
The metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Gemifloxacin.
7-Deazaguanine
The metabolism of 7-Deazaguanine can be decreased when combined with Gemifloxacin.
7,9-Dimethylguanine
The metabolism of 7,9-Dimethylguanine can be decreased when combined with Gemifloxacin.
8-azaguanine
The metabolism of 8-azaguanine can be decreased when combined with Gemifloxacin.
8-chlorotheophylline
The metabolism of 8-chlorotheophylline can be decreased when combined with Gemifloxacin.
9-Deazaguanine
The metabolism of 9-Deazaguanine can be decreased when combined with Gemifloxacin.
9-Methylguanine
The metabolism of 9-Methylguanine can be decreased when combined with Gemifloxacin.
Abexinostat
The risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Gemifloxacin is combined with Abexinostat.
Acarbose
The therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be increased when used in combination with Gemifloxacin.
Acebutolol
The risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Gemifloxacin is combined with Acebutolol.
Aceclofenac
Aceclofenac may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Gemifloxacin.
Acefylline
The metabolism of Acefylline can be decreased when combined with Gemifloxacin.
Acemetacin
Acemetacin may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Gemifloxacin.
Acenocoumarol
The therapeutic efficacy of Acenocoumarol can be increased when used in combination with Gemifloxacin.
Aceprometazine
The risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Gemifloxacin is combined with Aceprometazine.