Description

Simple

A medication used to treat malaria.

Clinical

An antimalarial indicated to prevent relapse of vivax malaria.

Overview

An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of malaria.

Pharmacodynamic

Primaquine is an antimalarial agent and is the essential co-drug with chloroquine in treating all cases of malaria. In the blood, malaria parasites break down a part of the red blood cells known as haemoglobin. When this happens haemoglobin is divided into two parts; haem and globin. Haem is toxic t... Read more

Mechanism of action

Primaquine's mechanism of action is not well understood. It may be acting by generating reactive oxygen species or by interfering with the electron transport in the parasite. Also, although its mechanism of action is unclear, primaquine may bind to and alter the properties of protozoal DNA.

Absorption

Information currently not available.

Protein binding

Information currently not available.

Volume of distribution

Information currently not available.

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

3.7-7.4 hours

Route of elimination

Information currently not available.

Toxicity

Information currently not available.

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Acute Illness
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0032431
      • Modification Of:
        • Base:
          • Name: Illness
          • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0098876
        • Severity:
          • Includes:
            • acute
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Pregnancy
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0018394
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Rheumatoid Arthritis
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0027961
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Lupus Erythematosus
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0029690
  • Hypersensitivity:
    • false
  • Regions: US
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Systemic disease
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108194
  • Patient Conditions Associated With:
      • Name: Granulocytopenia
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0006403
  • Regions: US
  • With Categories Coadmin:
      • Name: Myelosuppressive Agents
      • Drugbank Id: DBCAT002716
  • Regions: US
  • With Therapies:
      • Name: Hemolytic agents
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108195
  • Regions: US
  • With Drugs Coadmin:
      • Name: Quinacrine
      • Drugbank Id: DB01103

Food Interactions

  • Take with food. Food decreases irritation.

Interactions

Type in a drug name to check for interaction with Primaquine
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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
(R)-warfarin
The serum concentration of (R)-warfarin can be increased when it is combined with Primaquine.
(S)-Warfarin
The serum concentration of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when it is combined with Primaquine.
4-hydroxycoumarin
The metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.
4-Methoxyamphetamine
The metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine
The metabolism of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.
6-O-benzylguanine
The metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.
8-azaguanine
The metabolism of 8-azaguanine can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.
8-chlorotheophylline
The metabolism of 8-chlorotheophylline can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.
9-aminocamptothecin
The metabolism of 9-aminocamptothecin can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.
9-Deazaguanine
The metabolism of 9-Deazaguanine can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.
9-Methylguanine
The metabolism of 9-Methylguanine can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.
Abatacept
The metabolism of Primaquine can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
Abemaciclib
The serum concentration of Abemaciclib can be increased when it is combined with Primaquine.
Abexinostat
The risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Primaquine is combined with Abexinostat.
Abiraterone
The serum concentration of Primaquine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
Acebutolol
The metabolism of Acebutolol can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.
Acefylline
The metabolism of Acefylline can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.
Acenocoumarol
The serum concentration of Acenocoumarol can be increased when it is combined with Primaquine.
Acepromazine
The risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Primaquine is combined with Acepromazine.
Aceprometazine
The risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Primaquine is combined with Aceprometazine.
8 References
  1. 1 . Mihaly GW, Ward SA, Edwards G, Nicholl DD, Orme ML, Breckenridge AM: Pharmacokinetics of primaquine in man. I. Studies of the absolute bioavailability and effects of dose size. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1985 Jun;19(6):745-50.PubMed: 4027117
  2. 2 . ALVING AS, ARNOLD J, HOCKWALD RS, CLAYMAN CB, DERN RJ, BEUTLER E, FLANAGAN CL: Potentiation of the curative action of primaquine in vivax malaria by quinine and chloroquine. J Lab Clin Med. 1955 Aug;46(2):301-6.PubMed: 13242948
  3. 3 . Hill DR, Baird JK, Parise ME, Lewis LS, Ryan ET, Magill AJ: Primaquine: report from CDC expert meeting on malaria chemoprophylaxis I. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Sep;75(3):402-15.PubMed: 16968913
  4. 4 . Cohen RJ, Sachs JR, Wicker DJ, Conrad ME: Methemoglobinemia provoked by malarial chemoprophylaxis in Vietnam. N Engl J Med. 1968 Nov 21;279(21):1127-31.PubMed: 5686480
  5. 5 . Coleman MD, Coleman NA: Drug-induced methaemoglobinaemia. Treatment issues. Drug Saf. 1996 Jun;14(6):394-405.PubMed: 8828017
  6. 6 . Taavitsainen P, Juvonen R, Pelkonen O: In vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes in human liver microsomes by a potent CYP2A6 inhibitor, trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine (tranylcypromine), and its nonamine analog, cyclopropylbenzene. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Mar;29(3):217-22.PubMed: 11181487
  7. 7 . Bapiro TE, Andersson TB, Otter C, Hasler JA, Masimirembwa CM: Cytochrome P450 1A1/2 induction by antiparasitic drugs: dose-dependent increase in ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity and mRNA caused by quinine, primaquine and albendazole in HepG2 cells. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2002 Nov;58(8):537-42. Epub 2002 Oct 2.PubMed: 12451431
  8. 8 . CYP1A2 CTEP document File