Description

Simple

A penicillin antibiotic use to treat a wide variety of infections in the body.

Clinical

A penicillin derivative used for the treatment of infections caused by gram-positive bacteria, in particular streptococcal bacteria causing upper respiratory tract infections.

Overview

A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to ampicillin except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration. Amoxicillin is commonly prescribed with clauvanic acid (a beta lactamase inhibitor) as it is susceptible to beta-lacatamase degradation.

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of infections of the ear, nose, and throat, the genitourinary tract, the skin and skin structure, and the lower respiratory tract due to susceptible (only b-lactamase-negative) strains of Streptococcus spp. (a- and b-hemolytic strains only), S. pneumoniae, Staphylo... Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Amoxicillin is a moderate-spectrum antibiotic active against a wide range of Gram-positive, and a limited range of Gram-negative organisms. Compared to its peers within the class of beta-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin is often selected for use because it tends to demonstrate better absorption after... Read more

Mechanism of action

Amoxicillin binds to penicillin-binding protein 1A (PBP-1A) located inside the bacterial cell well. Penicillins acylate the penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain by opening the lactam ring. This inactivation of the enzyme prevents the formation of a cross-link of two linear peptidogl... Read more

Absorption

Rapidly absorbed after oral administration.

Protein binding

In blood serum, amoxicillin is approximately 20% protein-bound

Volume of distribution

Information currently not available.

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

61.3 minutes

Route of elimination

Most of the amoxicillin is excreted unchanged in the urine; its excretion can be delayed by concurrent administration of probenecid.

Toxicity

Serious toxicity is unlikely following large doses of amoxicillin. Acute ingestion of large doses of amoxicillin may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Acute oliguric renal failure and hematuria may occur following large doses.

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Cholestatic jaundice
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0094562
  • Hypersensitivity:
    • beta-lactam antibiotics
  • Regions: US
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Hepatic dysfunction
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0094733
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Cholestatic jaundice
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0094562
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Heptaic dysfunction
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0108177

Food Interactions

  • Take without regard to meals.

Interactions

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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
(R)-warfarin
Amoxicillin may increase the anticoagulant activities of (R)-warfarin.
(S)-Warfarin
Amoxicillin may increase the anticoagulant activities of (S)-Warfarin.
4-hydroxycoumarin
Amoxicillin may increase the anticoagulant activities of 4-hydroxycoumarin.
Abacavir
Abacavir may decrease the excretion rate of Amoxicillin which could result in a higher serum level.
Acarbose
Acarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Amoxicillin which could result in a higher serum level.
Aceclofenac
Aceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Amoxicillin which could result in a higher serum level.
Acemetacin
Acemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Amoxicillin which could result in a higher serum level.
Acenocoumarol
Amoxicillin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
Acetaminophen
Acetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Amoxicillin which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetazolamide
Acetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Amoxicillin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acid
Acetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Amoxicillin which could result in a higher serum level.
Aclidinium
Amoxicillin may decrease the excretion rate of Aclidinium which could result in a higher serum level.
Acrivastine
Amoxicillin may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
Acyclovir
Acyclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Amoxicillin which could result in a higher serum level.
Adefovir
Adefovir may decrease the excretion rate of Amoxicillin which could result in a higher serum level.
Adefovir dipivoxil
Adefovir dipivoxil may decrease the excretion rate of Amoxicillin which could result in a higher serum level.
Albutrepenonacog alfa
Amoxicillin may decrease the excretion rate of Albutrepenonacog alfa which could result in a higher serum level.
Alclofenac
Alclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Amoxicillin which could result in a higher serum level.
Alcuronium
The therapeutic efficacy of Alcuronium can be increased when used in combination with Amoxicillin.
Aldesleukin
Aldesleukin may decrease the excretion rate of Amoxicillin which could result in a higher serum level.
2 References
  1. 1 . Drawz SM, Bonomo RA: Three decades of beta-lactamase inhibitors. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010 Jan;23(1):160-201. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00037-09.PubMed: 20065329
  2. 2 . FDA Approved Drugs: Talicia® delayed-release oral capsules Link