Rifampicin


Description

A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by formin...

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Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis-related mycobacterial infections.

Pharmacodynamic

Rifampin is an antibiotic that inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in susceptible cells.... Read more

Mechanism of action

Rifampin acts via the inhibition of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, leading to a suppression of RNA sy... Read more

Absorption

Well absorbed from gastrointestinal tract.

Protein binding

89%

Volume of distribution

Information currently not available.

Clearance

0.19 +/- 0.06 L/hr/kg [300 mg IV]0.14 +/- 0.03 L/hr/kg [600 mg IV]

Half life

3.35 (+/- 0.66) hours

Route of elimination

Less than 30% of the dose is excreted in the urine as rifampin or metabolites.

Toxicity

LD50=1570 mg/kg (rat), chronic exposure may cause nausea and vomiting and unconsciousness


Adverse Effects

Effect Regions Age Groups Incidences Evidence Type
Shortness of Breath US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Flu syndrome US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Decrease in blood pressure US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Wheezing US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Adrenal Insufficiency US
Varying Reports
Shock US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Cutaneous reactions US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Pruritus US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Urticaria US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Rash US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Pemphigoid reaction US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Erythema multiforme US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Stevens-Johnson Syndrome US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Vasculitis US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Eosinophilia US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Sore mouth US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Sore tongue US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Conjunctivitis US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Anaphylaxis US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Edema of the face US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Edema of the extremities US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Nausea US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Anorexia US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Jaundice US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Vomiting US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Epigastric distress US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Heartburn US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Hepatitis US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Transient abnormalities in liver function tests US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Thrombocytopenia US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Shock-like syndrome with hepatic involvement US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Cramps US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Flatulence US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Pseudomembranous Colitis US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Diarrhea US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Elevations in BUN US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Menstrual disturbances US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Visual disturbances US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Myopathy US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Psychosis US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Generalized numbness US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Pain in extremities US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Muscular Weakness US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Acute Renal Failure US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Renal Insufficiency US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Acute tubular necrosis US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Interstitial nephritis US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Hematuria US
Case Reports Varying Reports
Hemoglobinuria US
Case Reports Varying Reports

Contraindications

  • Route:
    • Oral
    • Intravenous
  • Regions: US
  • With Drugs Coadmin:
      • Name: Atazanavir
      • Drugbank Id: DB01072
  • Route:
    • Oral
    • Intravenous
  • Regions: US
  • With Drugs Coadmin:
      • Name: Saquinavir
      • Drugbank Id: DB01232
  • Route:
    • Oral
    • Intravenous
  • Regions: US
  • With Drugs Coadmin:
      • Name: Tipranavir
      • Drugbank Id: DB00932
  • Route:
    • Oral
    • Intravenous
  • Regions: US
  • With Drugs Coadmin:
      • Name: Fosamprenavir
      • Drugbank Id: DB01319
  • Route:
    • Oral
    • Intravenous
  • Regions: US
  • With Drugs Coadmin:
      • Name: Ritonavir
      • Drugbank Id: DB00503

Food Interactions

  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Take on empty stomach: 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.
  • Take with a full glass of water.

Interactions

Type in a drug name to check for interaction with Rifampicin

The metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
The metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
The metabolism of Rifampicin can be increased when combined with 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid.
The metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
The metabolism of Rifampicin can be increased when combined with 5-androstenedione.
The metabolism of Rifampicin can be increased when combined with 6-O-benzylguanine.
The metabolism of Rifampicin can be increased when combined with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin.
The metabolism of 8-azaguanine can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
The metabolism of 8-chlorotheophylline can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
The metabolism of Rifampicin can be increased when combined with 9-aminocamptothecin.
The metabolism of 9-Deazaguanine can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
The metabolism of 9-Methylguanine can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
The metabolism of Abacavir can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
The serum concentration of Rifampicin can be increased when it is combined with Abemaciclib.
The metabolism of Abiraterone can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
The metabolism of Acebutolol can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
The metabolism of Acefylline can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
The metabolism of Acenocoumarol can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
Rifampicin may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Acetaminophen.
The serum concentration of Acetohexamide can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.

References

  • 1 . Baysarowich J, Koteva K, Hughes DW, Ejim L, Griffiths E, Zhang K, Junop M, Wright GD: Rifamycin antibiotic resistance by ADP-ribosylation: Structure and diversity of Arr. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 25;105(12):4886-91. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0711939105. Epub 2008 Mar 18. [PubMed: 18349144]

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