Description

Simple

A medication used to treat herpes infections in the eye as well as a certain viral infection in some patients with weakened immune systems.

Clinical

A DNA polymerase inhibitor used to treat cytomegalovirus and herpetic keratitis of the eye.

Overview

An acyclovir analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.

Pharmacology

Indication

For induction and maintenance in the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in immunocompromised patients, including patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Also used in the treatment of severe cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, including CMV pneumonia, CMV gastrointestinal diseas... Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Ganciclovir is a synthetic nucleoside analogue of 2'-deoxyguanosine that inhibits replication of herpes viruses both in vitro and in vivo. Sensitive human viruses include cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus -1 and -2 (HSV-1, HSV-2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and varicella zoster... Read more

Mechanism of action

Ganciclovir's antiviral activity inhibits virus replication. This inhibitory action is highly selective as the drug must be converted to the active form by a virus-encoded cellular enzyme, thymidine kinase (TK). TK catalyzes phosphorylation of ganciclovir to the monophosphate, which is then subseque... Read more

Absorption

Poorly absorbed systemically following oral administration. Bioavailability under fasting conditions is approximately 5%, and when administered with food, 6 to 9% (about 30% with a fatty meal).

Protein binding

1 to 2%

Volume of distribution

0.74 ± 0.15 L/kg

Clearance

128 +/- 63 mL/min [Patients with Renal Impairment (Clcr=50-79 mL/min)]57+/- 8 mL/min [Patients with Renal Impairment (Clcr=25-49 mL/min)]30 +/- 13 mL/min [Patients with Renal Impairment (Clcr

Half life

2.5 to 3.6 hours (mean 2.9 hours) when administered intravenously in adults. 3.1 to 5.5 hours when administered orally in adults. Renal function impairment causes a marked increase in half life (9 to 30 hours intravenously, 15.7 to 18.2 hours orally).

Route of elimination

Renal excretion of unchanged drug by glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion is the major route of elimination of ganciclovir.

Toxicity

Oral, mouse LD50: > 2g/kg. Intravenous, dog LD50: > 150mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include irreversible pancytopenia, worsening GI symptoms, and acute renal failure. Suspected cancer agent.

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

Information currently not available.

Food Interactions

  • Take with food. Food increases bioavailability.

Interactions

Type in a drug name to check for interaction with Ganciclovir
Type a drug name in the box above to get started
  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
7-Nitroindazole
The therapeutic efficacy of 7-Nitroindazole can be decreased when used in combination with Ganciclovir.
Abacavir
The risk or severity of cytopenia can be increased when Ganciclovir is combined with Abacavir.
Abemaciclib
The excretion of Abemaciclib can be decreased when combined with Ganciclovir.
Acarbose
Acarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Ganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Aceclofenac
Aceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Ganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Acemetacin
Acemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Ganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetaminophen
Acetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Ganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetazolamide
Ganciclovir may increase the excretion rate of Acetazolamide which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylcholine
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ganciclovir is combined with Acetylcholine.
Acetylsalicylic acid
Acetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Ganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Acipimox
The risk or severity of myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria can be increased when Ganciclovir is combined with Acipimox.
Aclidinium
Ganciclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Aclidinium which could result in a higher serum level.
Acrivastine
Ganciclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
Acyclovir
Acyclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Ganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Adefovir
The risk or severity of cytopenia can be increased when Ganciclovir is combined with Adefovir.
Adefovir dipivoxil
Adefovir dipivoxil may decrease the excretion rate of Ganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Adenovirus type 7 vaccine live
The therapeutic efficacy of Adenovirus type 7 vaccine live can be decreased when used in combination with Ganciclovir.
Agmatine
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ganciclovir is combined with Agmatine.
Albutrepenonacog alfa
Ganciclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Albutrepenonacog alfa which could result in a higher serum level.
Alclofenac
Alclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Ganciclovir which could result in a higher serum level.