Description

Simple

A medication used to treat a wide variety of cancers.

Clinical

An actinomycin used to treat a wide variety of cancers.

Overview

A compound composed of a two cyclic peptides attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from streptomyces parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of Wilms' tumor, childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and metastatic, nonseminomatous testicular cancer as part of a combination chemotherapy and/or multi-modality treatment regimen

Pharmacodynamic

Generally, the actinomycins exert an inhibitory effect on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and on some fungi. However, the toxic properties of the actinomycins (including dactinomycin) in relation to antibacterial activity are such as to preclude their use as antibiotics in the treatment of... Read more

Mechanism of action

Good evidence exists that this drug bind strongly, but reversibly, to DNA, interfering with synthesis of RNA (prevention of RNA polymerase elongation) and, consequently, with protein synthesis.

Absorption

poorly absorbed from gastrointestinal tract

Protein binding

5%

Volume of distribution

Information currently not available.

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

36 hours

Route of elimination

Information currently not available.

Toxicity

hepatoxicity

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

  • Route:
    • Intravenous
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Herpes zoster infection
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0101646
  • Route:
    • Intravenous
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Chickenpox
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0005172

Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.

Interactions

Type in a drug name to check for interaction with Dactinomycin
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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
(R)-warfarin
The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when (R)-warfarin is combined with Dactinomycin.
(S)-Warfarin
The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when (S)-Warfarin is combined with Dactinomycin.
2-Methoxyethanol
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dactinomycin is combined with 2-Methoxyethanol.
4-hydroxycoumarin
The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when 4-hydroxycoumarin is combined with Dactinomycin.
9-(N-methyl-L-isoleucine)-cyclosporin A
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dactinomycin is combined with 9-(N-methyl-L-isoleucine)-cyclosporin A.
Abatacept
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dactinomycin is combined with Abatacept.
Abciximab
The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Abciximab is combined with Dactinomycin.
Abemaciclib
Abemaciclib may decrease the excretion rate of Dactinomycin which could result in a higher serum level.
Abetimus
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dactinomycin is combined with Abetimus.
Acenocoumarol
The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Acenocoumarol is combined with Dactinomycin.
Acteoside
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dactinomycin is combined with Acteoside.
Adalimumab
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Adalimumab is combined with Dactinomycin.
Adenovirus type 7 vaccine live
The risk or severity of infection can be increased when Adenovirus type 7 vaccine live is combined with Dactinomycin.
Afatinib
Afatinib may decrease the excretion rate of Dactinomycin which could result in a higher serum level.
Afelimomab
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dactinomycin is combined with Afelimomab.
Aldesleukin
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Dactinomycin.
Aldosterone
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dactinomycin is combined with Aldosterone.
Alectinib
Alectinib may decrease the excretion rate of Dactinomycin which could result in a higher serum level.
Alefacept
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alefacept is combined with Dactinomycin.
Alemtuzumab
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alemtuzumab is combined with Dactinomycin.
4 References
  1. 1 . Sobell HM: Actinomycin and DNA transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Aug;82(16):5328-31.PubMed: 2410919
  2. 2 . Turan T, Karacay O, Tulunay G, Boran N, Koc S, Bozok S, Kose MF: Results with EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine) chemotherapy in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1432-8.PubMed: 16803542
  3. 3 . Abd El-Aal HH, Habib EE, Mishrif MM: Wilms' tumor: the experience of the pediatric unit of Kasr El-Aini center of radiation oncology and nuclear medicine (NEMROCK). J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2005 Dec;17(4):308-14.PubMed: 17102824
  4. 4 . Khatua S, Nair CN, Ghosh K: Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia following dactinomycin therapy in a child with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: the unresolved issues. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2004 Nov;26(11):777-9.PubMed: 15543019