Description

Simple

An antibiotic used to treat a wide variety of infections in the body.

Clinical

An aminoglycoside used to treat a wide variety of infections in the body.

Overview

A complex of three different closely related aminoglycoside sulfates, Gentamicins C1, C2, and C1a, obtained from Micromonospora purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit protein synthesis (genetic translation).

Pharmacology

Indication

For treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the following microorganisms: P. aeruginosa, Proteus species (indole-positive and indole-negative), E. coli, Klebsiella-Enterobactor-Serratia species, Citrobacter species and Staphylococcus... Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Gentamicin is a broad spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic. Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of t-RNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Aminoglycosides are useful primarily in infections involving aerobic... Read more

Mechanism of action

Aminoglycosides like gentamicin "irreversibly" bind to specific 30S-subunit proteins and 16S rRNA. Specifically gentamicin binds to four nucleotides of 16S rRNA and a single amino acid of protein S12. This interferes with decoding site in the vicinity of nucleotide 1400 in 16S rRNA of 30S subunit. T... Read more

Absorption

Injections lead to peak serum concentrations in 30-60 minutes. Topical gentamicin is readily absorbed from large burned, denuded, or granulating areas but not through intact skin. Absorption of gentamicin is faster and greater with the cream compared to the ointment. Gentamicin is absorbed in small... Read more

Protein binding

Low (between 0 and 30%)

Volume of distribution

Information currently not available.

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

3-3½ hours in infants one week to six months of age; this increases to 5½ hours in full-term and large premature infants less than one week old.

Route of elimination

Information currently not available.

Toxicity

Mild and reversible nephrotoxicity may be observed in 5 - 25% of patients. Gentamicin accumulates in proximal renal tubular cells and causes cell damage. Tubular cell regeneration occurs despite continued drug exposure. Toxicity usually occurs several days following initiation of therapy. May cause... Read more

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

Information currently not available.

Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.

Interactions

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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
(R)-warfarin
The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Gentamicin is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-Warfarin
The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Gentamicin is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
4-hydroxycoumarin
The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Gentamicin is combined with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
Abacavir
Gentamicin may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
Acarbose
Gentamicin may decrease the excretion rate of Acarbose which could result in a higher serum level.
Aceclofenac
The risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Aceclofenac is combined with Gentamicin.
Acemetacin
The risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Acemetacin is combined with Gentamicin.
Acenocoumarol
The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Gentamicin is combined with Acenocoumarol.
Acetaminophen
Gentamicin may decrease the excretion rate of Acetaminophen which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetylcholine
The therapeutic efficacy of Acetylcholine can be decreased when used in combination with Gentamicin.
Acetyldigitoxin
The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gentamicin is combined with Acetyldigitoxin.
Acetyldigoxin
The serum concentration of Acetyldigoxin can be increased when it is combined with Gentamicin.
Acetylsalicylic acid
The risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Gentamicin.
Aclidinium
Gentamicin may decrease the excretion rate of Aclidinium which could result in a higher serum level.
Acrivastine
Gentamicin may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
Acyclovir
Gentamicin may decrease the excretion rate of Acyclovir which could result in a higher serum level.
Adefovir
The risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Gentamicin is combined with Adefovir.
Adefovir dipivoxil
The risk or severity of nephrotoxicity can be increased when Adefovir dipivoxil is combined with Gentamicin.
Agalsidase beta
The therapeutic efficacy of Agalsidase beta can be decreased when used in combination with Gentamicin.
Albutrepenonacog alfa
Gentamicin may decrease the excretion rate of Albutrepenonacog alfa which could result in a higher serum level.