Description

Simple

An antibiotic used to treat urine infections (also known as UTIs or urinary tract infections).

Clinical

An antibiotic used to treat urinary tract infections.

Overview

Nitrofurantoin is a nitrofuran antibiotic used to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections.[8,9,10] Nitrofurantoin is converted by bacterial nitroreductases to electrophilic intermediates which inhibit the citric acid cycle as well as synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein.[2] This drug is more resistant to the development of bacterial resistance because it acts on many targets at once.[2] Nitrofurantoin is a second line treatment to [trimethoprim]/[sulfamethoxazole].[Read more

Pharmacology

Indication

Nitrofurantoin is indicated to treat acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections.[8, Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Nitrofurantoin interferes with vital processes in bacteria, which leads to their death.[ Read more

Mechanism of action

Nitrofurantoin is converted by bacterial nitroreductases to electrophilic intermediates which inhibit the citric acid cycle as well as synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein.[ Read more

Absorption

Nitrofurantoin reaches a Cmax of 0.875-0.963mg/L with an AUC of 2.21-2.42mg\*h/L.[ Read more

Protein binding

Nitrofurantoin could be up to 90% protein bound in plasma.[1]

Volume of distribution

Data regarding the volume of distribution in humans is scarce but it has been reported as 0.46L/kg in dogs.[ Read more

Clearance

The clearance of nitrofurantoin is 16.7-19.4L/h.[ Read more

Half life

The half life of nitrofurantoin is 0.72-0.78h.[ Read more

Route of elimination

27-50% of an oral dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged nitrofurantoin.[ Read more

Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include vomiting.[8, Read more

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Pregnancy at term
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107943
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Renal Function Impairment
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0055182
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Oliguria
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0001404
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Anuria
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0001345
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: History of cholestatic jaundice
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107945
  • With Drugs:
      • Name: Nitrofurantoin
      • Drugbank Id: DB00698
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: History of hepatic dysfunction
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107587
  • With Drugs:
      • Name: Nitrofurantoin
      • Drugbank Id: DB00698
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Imminent onset of labor
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107944
  • Regions: US
  • Below Age:
    • Amount: 1
    • Unit: month
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Labor
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0031975
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Delivery
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0018385

Food Interactions

  • Take with food. Food decreases irritation and increases bioavailability.

Interactions

Type in a drug name to check for interaction with Nitrofurantoin
Type a drug name in the box above to get started
  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
(R)-warfarin
The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Nitrofurantoin is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-Warfarin
The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Nitrofurantoin is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
4-hydroxycoumarin
The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Nitrofurantoin is combined with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
5-fluorouridine
The therapeutic efficacy of Nitrofurantoin can be decreased when used in combination with 5-fluorouridine.
Abacavir
Nitrofurantoin may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
Abemaciclib
Abemaciclib may decrease the excretion rate of Nitrofurantoin which could result in a higher serum level.
Acarbose
Acarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Nitrofurantoin which could result in a higher serum level.
Acebutolol
The risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Nitrofurantoin is combined with Acebutolol.
Aceclofenac
Aceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Nitrofurantoin which could result in a higher serum level.
Acemetacin
Acemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Nitrofurantoin which could result in a higher serum level.
Acenocoumarol
The risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Nitrofurantoin is combined with Acenocoumarol.
Acetaminophen
The risk or severity of methemoglobinemia can be increased when Acetaminophen is combined with Nitrofurantoin.
Acetazolamide
Acetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Nitrofurantoin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Acetylsalicylic acid
Acetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Nitrofurantoin which could result in a higher serum level.
Aclidinium
Nitrofurantoin may decrease the excretion rate of Aclidinium which could result in a higher serum level.
Acrivastine
Nitrofurantoin may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
Acyclovir
Acyclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Nitrofurantoin which could result in a higher serum level.
Adefovir
Adefovir may decrease the excretion rate of Nitrofurantoin which could result in a higher serum level.
Adefovir dipivoxil
Adefovir dipivoxil may decrease the excretion rate of Nitrofurantoin which could result in a higher serum level.
Afatinib
Afatinib may decrease the excretion rate of Nitrofurantoin which could result in a higher serum level.
11 References
  1. 1 . Mannisto PT, Lamminsivu U: Nitrofurantoin is highly bound to plasma protein. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1982 Apr;9(4):327-8. doi: 10.1093/jac/9.4.327.PubMed: 7085535
  2. 2 . McOsker CC, Fitzpatrick PM: Nitrofurantoin: mechanism of action and implications for resistance development in common uropathogens. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1994 May;33 Suppl A:23-30. doi: 10.1093/jac/33.suppl_a.23.PubMed: 7928834
  3. 3 . Novelli A, Rosi E: Pharmacological properties of oral antibiotics for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. J Chemother. 2017 Dec;29(sup1):10-18. doi: 10.1080/1120009X.2017.1380357.PubMed: 29271734
  4. 4 . Gupta K, Hooton TM, Stamm WE: Increasing antimicrobial resistance and the management of uncomplicated community-acquired urinary tract infections. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Jul 3;135(1):41-50. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-135-1-200107030-00012.PubMed: 11434731
  5. 5 . Rosenberg HA, Bates TR: The influence of food on nitrofurantoin bioavailability. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1976 Aug;20(2):227-32. doi: 10.1002/cpt1976202227.PubMed: 7376
  6. 6 . Niazi S, Vishnupad KS, Veng-Pedersen P: Absorption and disposition characteristics of nitrofurantoin in dogs. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 1983 Jul-Sep;4(3):213-23.PubMed: 6626697
  7. 7 . Hoener B, Patterson SE: Nitrofurantoin disposition. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981 Jun;29(6):808-16. doi: 10.1038/clpt.1981.115.PubMed: 7226713
  8. 8 . FDA Approved Drug Products: Macrocrystalline Nitrofurantoin Oral Capsule Link
  9. 9 . FDA Approved Drug Products: Nitrofurantoin and Macrocrystalline Nitrofurantoin Oral Capsule Link
  10. 10 . FDA Approved Drug Products: Nitrofurantoin Oral Suspension Link
  11. 11 . FDA Approved Drug Products: Nitrofurantoin Oral Tablet Link