Description

Simple

A medication used to treat low magnesium levels, some types of seizures, a kidney condition in children, and a type of uncontrollable muscle spasm.

Clinical

A drug used to treat convulsions during pregnancy, nephritis in children, magnesium deficiency, and tetany.

Overview

A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)

Pharmacology

Indication

Used for immediate control of life-threatening convulsions in the treatment of severe toxemias (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia) of pregnancy and in the treatment of acute nephritis in children. Also indicated for replacement therapy in magnesium deficiency, especially in acute hypomagnesemia accompanie... Read more

Pharmacodynamic

Magnesium sulfate is a small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decrease... Read more

Mechanism of action

Magnesium is the second most plentiful cation of the intracellular fluids. It is essential for the activity of many enzyme systems and plays an important role with regard to neurochemical transmission and muscular excitability. Magnesium sulfate reduces striated muscle contractions and blocks periph... Read more

Absorption

Information currently not available.

Protein binding

25-30%

Volume of distribution

Information currently not available.

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

43.2 hours (for newborns)

Route of elimination

Magnesium is excreted solely by the kidney at a rate proportional to the serum concentration and glomerular filtration.

Toxicity

LD50 = 1200 mg/kg (rat, subcutaneous). May be harmful if swallowed. May act as an irritant. Adverse reactions include hypotension, ECG changes, diarrhea, urinary retention, CNS depression and respiratory depression.

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

  • Time Period: 2 hours preceding delivery
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Toxemia of pregnancy
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0022594

Food Interactions

    Information currently not available.

Interactions

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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5
The serum concentration of Magnesium sulfate can be increased when it is combined with 1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5.
1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2
The serum concentration of Magnesium sulfate can be increased when it is combined with 1alpha,24S-Dihydroxyvitamin D2.
2,4-thiazolidinedione
The risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Magnesium sulfate is combined with 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine
The therapeutic efficacy of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.
3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl Diphosphate
Magnesium sulfate can cause a decrease in the absorption of 3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl Diphosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine
Magnesium sulfate may increase the excretion rate of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine
The therapeutic efficacy of 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.
4-Methoxyamphetamine
The therapeutic efficacy of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine
The therapeutic efficacy of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.
6-O-benzylguanine
Magnesium sulfate may increase the excretion rate of 6-O-benzylguanine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
7-Deazaguanine
Magnesium sulfate may increase the excretion rate of 7-Deazaguanine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
7-Nitroindazole
The therapeutic efficacy of 7-Nitroindazole can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline
The therapeutic efficacy of 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.
7,9-Dimethylguanine
Magnesium sulfate may increase the excretion rate of 7,9-Dimethylguanine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
8-azaguanine
Magnesium sulfate may increase the excretion rate of 8-azaguanine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
8-chlorotheophylline
Magnesium sulfate may increase the excretion rate of 8-chlorotheophylline which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
9-Deazaguanine
Magnesium sulfate may increase the excretion rate of 9-Deazaguanine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
9-Methylguanine
Magnesium sulfate may increase the excretion rate of 9-Methylguanine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Abafungin
The therapeutic efficacy of Abafungin can be increased when used in combination with Magnesium sulfate.
Acarbose
The risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Magnesium sulfate is combined with Acarbose.
13 References
  1. 1 . Blitz M, Blitz S, Hughes R, Diner B, Beasley R, Knopp J, Rowe BH: Aerosolized magnesium sulfate for acute asthma: a systematic review. Chest. 2005 Jul;128(1):337-44.PubMed: 16002955
  2. 2 . Yokoyama K, Takahashi N, Yada Y, Koike Y, Kawamata R, Uehara R, Kono Y, Honma Y, Momoi MY: Prolonged maternal magnesium administration and bone metabolism in neonates. Early Hum Dev. 2010 Mar;86(3):187-91. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2010.02.007. Epub 2010 Mar 12.PubMed: 20226604
  3. 3 . Wedig KE, Kogan J, Schorry EK, Whitsett JA: Skeletal demineralization and fractures caused by fetal magnesium toxicity. J Perinatol. 2006 Jun;26(6):371-4.PubMed: 16724078
  4. 4 . Nassar AH, Sakhel K, Maarouf H, Naassan GR, Usta IM: Adverse maternal and neonatal outcome of prolonged course of magnesium sulfate tocolysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(9):1099-103.PubMed: 16929415
  5. 5 . Malaeb SN, Rassi AI, Haddad MC, Seoud MA, Yunis KA: Bone mineralization in newborns whose mothers received magnesium sulphate for tocolysis of premature labour. Pediatr Radiol. 2004 May;34(5):384-6. Epub 2004 Feb 18.PubMed: 14985884
  6. 6 . Matsuda Y, Maeda Y, Ito M, Sakamoto H, Masaoka N, Takada M, Sato K: Effect of magnesium sulfate treatment on neonatal bone abnormalities. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;44(2):82-8.PubMed: 9286718
  7. 7 . Schanler RJ, Smith LG Jr, Burns PA: Effects of long-term maternal intravenous magnesium sulfate therapy on neonatal calcium metabolism and bone mineral content. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;43(4):236-41.PubMed: 9194621
  8. 8 . Santi MD, Henry GW, Douglas GL: Magnesium sulfate treatment of preterm labor as a cause of abnormal neonatal bone mineralization. J Pediatr Orthop. 1994 Mar-Apr;14(2):249-53.PubMed: 8188843
  9. 9 . Holcomb WL Jr, Shackelford GD, Petrie RH: Magnesium tocolysis and neonatal bone abnormalities: a controlled study. Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Oct;78(4):611-4.PubMed: 1923163
  10. 10 . Cumming WA, Thomas VJ: Hypermagnesemia: a cause of abnormal metaphyses in the neonate. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1989 May;152(5):1071-2.PubMed: 2705341
  11. 11 . Lamm CI, Norton KI, Murphy RJ, Wilkins IA, Rabinowitz JG: Congenital rickets associated with magnesium sulfate infusion for tocolysis. J Pediatr. 1988 Dec;113(6):1078-82.PubMed: 3193315
  12. 12 . McGuinness GA, Weinstein MM, Cruikshank DP, Pitkin RM: Effects of magnesium sulfate treatment on perinatal calcium metabolism. II. Neonatal responses. Obstet Gynecol. 1980 Nov;56(5):595-600.PubMed: 7432730
  13. 13 . Riaz M, Porat R, Brodsky NL, Hurt H: The effects of maternal magnesium sulfate treatment on newborns: a prospective controlled study. J Perinatol. 1998 Nov-Dec;18(6 Pt 1):449-54.PubMed: 9848759