Description

Simple

A medication used to treat malaria that is also used to treat some types of arthritis.

Clinical

An antimalarial drug used to treat susceptible infections with P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. falciparum. It is also used for second line treatment for rheumatoid arthritis.

Overview

The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses.

Pharmacology

Indication

For the suppressive treatment and for acute attacks of malaria due to P. vivax, P.malariae, P. ovale, and susceptible strains of P. falciparum, Second-line agent in treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Pharmacodynamic

Chloroquine is the prototype anti malarial drug, most widely used to treat all types of malaria except for disease caused by chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum. It is highly effective against erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium mal... Read more

Mechanism of action

The mechanism behind the plasmodicidal action of chloroquine is not completely certain. Like other quinoline derivatives, it is thought to inhibit the heme polymerase activity, resulting in an accumulation of free heme, which is toxic to the parasites. Inside red blood cells, the malarial parasite... Read more

Absorption

Completely absorbed from gastrointestinal tract

Protein binding

~55% of the drug in the plasma is bound to nondiffusible plasma constituents

Volume of distribution

Information currently not available.

Clearance

Information currently not available.

Half life

1-2 months

Route of elimination

Excretion of chloroquine is quite slow, but is increased by acidification of the urine.

Toxicity

Information currently not available.

Adverse Effects

Contraindications

  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Visual field changes
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0107862
  • Regions: US
  • Patient Conditions:
      • Name: Retinal changes
      • Drugbank Id: DBCOND0096337

Food Interactions

  • Take with food. Food reduces irritation and increases bioavailability.

Interactions

Type in a drug name to check for interaction with Chloroquine
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  • Paracetamol(acetaminophen)
  • Paxil(paroxetine)
  • Pamelor(nortriptyline)
  • Panadol(acetaminophen)
  • Patanol(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Pataday(olopatadine ophthalmic)
  • Parnate(tranylcypromine)
  • Pazeo(olopatadine ophthalmic)
(R)-warfarin
The metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
(S)-Warfarin
The metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-phenyl-4-acetoxypiperidine
The metabolism of Chloroquine can be decreased when combined with 1-(2-Phenylethyl)-4-phenyl-4-acetoxypiperidine.
4-Methoxyamphetamine
The metabolism of 4-Methoxyamphetamine can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine
The metabolism of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
7-Nitroindazole
The therapeutic efficacy of 7-Nitroindazole can be decreased when used in combination with Chloroquine.
Abacavir
Chloroquine may decrease the excretion rate of Abacavir which could result in a higher serum level.
Abatacept
The metabolism of Chloroquine can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
Abemaciclib
The serum concentration of Abemaciclib can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
Abexinostat
The risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Chloroquine is combined with Abexinostat.
Abiraterone
The metabolism of Chloroquine can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
Acalabrutinib
The metabolism of Chloroquine can be decreased when combined with Acalabrutinib.
Acarbose
Acarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Chloroquine which could result in a higher serum level.
Acebutolol
The metabolism of Acebutolol can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
Aceclofenac
Aceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Chloroquine which could result in a higher serum level.
Acemetacin
Acemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Chloroquine which could result in a higher serum level.
Acepromazine
The risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Chloroquine is combined with Acepromazine.
Aceprometazine
The risk or severity of QTc prolongation can be increased when Chloroquine is combined with Aceprometazine.
Acetaminophen
The metabolism of Chloroquine can be decreased when combined with Acetaminophen.
Acetazolamide
Acetazolamide may increase the excretion rate of Chloroquine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.